Group 1: Words used for different types of Governments
Governments are the most important part of the way our societies function. Given how important is to understand the way governments function, it makes sense that you explore what are the different forms of governance that are possible. Explore the list of different forms of governments here:
- Anarchy: Anarchy is a state of absence of law.
- Authoritarian: A rule characteristic of a ruler having absolute sovereignty and a centralized and highly concentrated power maintained by political repression can be termed as authoritarian.
- Autocracy: A form of government controlled by absolute power, concentrated in the hands of a single person with minimal restraints on the decisions and lack of any regularized mechanisms of popular control.
- Communism: It is a revolutionary socialist movement aimed at creating a classless society that abolishes private ownership. The property is held by the community rather than the individuals and all activity is controlled by the government.
- Democracy: Originating in Ancient Greece, democracy means 'rule of the people' .The term today refers to a political system in which the people or their elected representatives govern themselves, rather than being governed, so everyone has a equal say in the decisions affecting their lives. E.g.
- Dictatorship: A form of government or social situation where the power rests entirely on one person or a group of persons.
- Fascism: A way of ruling that advocates total control of the people and seeks to promote the ancestral and cultural values and eradicate foreign influences that are deemed to cause degeneration to the national and moral values of the people.
- Junta: Having its origin from Spanish word Junta, which has its roots in Latin jungere (to join), it refers to a group or coalition that takes control of the state after overthrowing a government. Monarchy: It is the type of government having a hereditary chief of state(a king or queen), usually known as a monarch, with life tenure and powers varying from nominal , where the powers of the monarch are regulated by a constitution to absolute, where the monarch enjoys unlimited powers.
- Tyranny: A form of government or authority of an absolute ruler; hence, arbitrary exercise of power over subjects and others not requisite for the purposes of government or approved by law and justice.
- Oligarchy: The word is from the Greek term for "rule of the few." It is a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a faction of persons or families.
- Plutocracy: The Greek word 'ploutos' means wealth, so plutocracy is a government ruled by the rich or power provided by wealth.
- Technocracy: A form of government where scientists and technical experts are in control of the state.
- Theocracy: A government of a state by priests ruling in the name of God or gods, or by officials who are regarded as divinely guided, or consistent with the doctrines and principles of a particular religion or religious community.
- Totalitarian: A system is the one in which a single political authority regulates total control over state, that is centralized and dictatorial.
Group 2: Words related to law
The language of law is a very important one to understand; a significant portion of our lives is driven by law and legal procedures.
- Abscond: to depart in a sudden and secret manner, especially to avoid capture and legal prosecution.
- Amicus curiae: a person not directly engaged in a case who advises the court
- Arson: the act of intentionally or recklessly setting fire to another's property or to one's own property for some improper reason.
- Battery: An assault in which the assailant makes physical contact
- Bequest: the act of bequeathing, a gift of property by will, esp personal property.
- Cause celebre: any controversy that attracts great public attention, as a celebrated legal case or trial, a famous lawsuit, trial, or controversy.
- Caveat Emptor: the principle that the buyer must bear the risk for the quality of goods purchased unless they are covered by the seller's warranty.
- Codicil: a supplement modifying a will or revoking some provision of it, an additional provision; appendix.
- Contraband: goods that are prohibited by law from being exported or imported, illegal traffic in such goods; smuggling.
- Disenfranchise: to deprive (a person) of the right to vote or other rights of citizenship, to deprive (a place) of the right to send representatives to an elected body, to deprive (a business concern, etc) of some privilege or right.
- Extradition: the surrender of an alleged offender or fugitive to the state in whose territory the alleged offence was committed
- Habeas Corpus: a writ ordering a person to be brought before a court or judge, esp so that the court may ascertain whether his detention is lawful.
- Incarcerate: to imprison; confine.
- Injunction: law an instruction or order issued by a court to a party to an action, esp to refrain from some act, such as causing a nuisance, the act of enjoining.
- Jurisprudence: the science or philosophy of law, a system or body of law, a branch of law: medical jurisprudence.
- Litigious: inclined to dispute or disagree; argumentative.
- Miscreant: depraved, villainous, or base, archaic, holding a false or unorthodox religious belief; heretical.
- Perpetrator: to perform or be responsible for (a deception, crime, etc)
- Plagiarism: an act or instance of using or closely imitating the language and thoughts of another author without authorization and the representation of that author's work as one's own
- Probation: the testing or trial of a person's conduct, character, qualifications, or the like