Figures of Speech – 2

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Figures of Speech
  • Adjunction: Adjunction refers to a clause or a phrase, usually a verb that is added at the beginning of a sentence. Examples:
    1. Sings the bird as we walk on by.
    2. Good it is that fights the master with his dark lord.
  • Allegory: This figure of speech is an extended metaphor where the characters or actions in a literary work have a more imaginative meaning. Example: I feel like a dog today. I rolled out of my basket and munched on some biscuit-like cereal. Scratching as I got on the train, I sniffed a passing female. (Aruooo!! Down boy! - Animal Farm, George Orwell)
  • Alliteration: A repetition of particular consonant sound in the beginning of each word in close succession. Though alliteration is mainly consonant sounds, sometimes vowel sounds are also repeated. This figure of speech is mainly used in poetry. Example: I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet.
  • Allusion: An allusion is an indirect or brief reference to a person, place or thing in a literary work. Example: I doubt if Phaethon feared more - that time he dropped the sun-reins of his father's chariot.
  • Antithesis: An antithesis is a figure of speech where there is a juxtaposition of two contrasting ideas in a balanced clause or sentence. Example: It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of light, it was the season of darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way. - (A Tale of Two Cities, Charles Dickens)
  • Apostrophe: In this figure of speech, a nonexistent or absent person is addressed. In literary pieces, this figure of speech usually starts with an exclamation 'O'. Example: O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo? - (Romeo and Juliet, William Shakespeare)
  • Climax: In climax, the words or clauses are arranged in ascending order of importance. These phrases have a similar theme and arranged in increasing order according to the impact they create on the reader. Examples:
    1. Love creates happiness, happiness creates joy.
    2. We'll collect pennies in tens, hundreds and millions!
    3. Power starts small, becomes significant then becomes unstoppable enlightenment.
  • Euphemism: A figure of speech where an offensive or rude word is substituted by a polite and gentle word. The technique is to use a neutral language so as not to sound offensive to the receiver. Examples:
    1. Differently abled instead of disabled.
    2. Put to sleep instead of euthanasia.
  • Metonymy: In metonymy, the name of one thing is replaced with something that is closely related to it. In common terms, it is also known as misnomer or transmutation. Examples:
    1. The suits on Wall Street walked off with most of our savings. (Suits referring to bankers).
    2. The White House asked the television networks for air time on Monday night. (Here air time refers to broadcasting).
  • Onomatopoeia: This figure of speech imitates the sounds produced by the objects or actions. Examples:
    1. The buzzing of bees.
    2. The whirring of the washing machine.
  • Synecdoche: It is a part of speech similar to metonymy, where a part of a particular object is used to refer to the whole thing. Examples:
    1. The city posted a sign, where 'the city' refers to the government.
    2. The gray beard refers to an old man.
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