Arithmetic Reasoning: Concepts & Basics

Introduction: what is arithmetic reasoning?
Arithmetic reasoning helps us to select the required information from a given question and solve that question using some mathematical concepts. Such questions normally consist of a word problem which helps us to determine what the question actually is asking of us. Arithmetic operations are carried out when there is a requirement of solving with mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
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What is required of us is to have a look at the problem, check which concept of maths is to be applied and then arrive at the answer which is correct. Use our reasoning skills to analyze the information that can be useful and rule out the unnecessary data.
Filter out the relevant information, and find the correct answers.
So basically Arithmetic reasoning primarily deals with converting the word problem and transforming it into equations in order to reach a solution.
Arithmetic reasoning questions are asked from a number of areas:
  • Algebra
  • Ages
  • Ratio & proportion
  • Sequences & patterns
  • Percentages
  • HCF & LCM, Fractions
  • Games & Tournaments
Let us try an illustration: Nikhil is 2 times as old as Abhay. In the next 3 years, the sum of their respective ages will be 66. How old are they presently?
Solution: Let the age of Abhay = x. As, Nikhil is twice as old as Abhay, his age can be represented as 2x.
After 3 years, Abhay’s age will be x + 3, and Nikhil’s age will be 2x + 3. The sum of their ages will be 66.
So, the equation becomes:
x + 3 + 2x + 3 = 66
x = 20, so their respective ages will be : 20 years and 40 years.
So, we can solve the equation using one or two variables as per the question requires.
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