Sentence Correction: Parallelism Error

Sentence correction is an important part of the competitive exams. In this type of sentence, a portion of may be underlined/italicized. One has to pick up an option, which is grammatically correct. Such questions often contain parallelism error. Let’s learn about parallel reasoning to understand the concept better.
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What is Parallel Reasoning?
If a sentence expresses many ideas that are similar to each other, they should be presented in parallel constructions i.e. they should be in the same grammatical form.
When looking at parallel elements in a list, concrete nouns and action nouns cannot be considered parallel. Whereas concrete nouns are specific things (e.g. rock, cup, year, tiger), action nouns refer to actions (the pollution of ..., the rotation of ...). Simple gerunds (typing, tying, eating, giving) are more like concrete nouns, whereas complex gerunds (the typing of ..., the typing of ..., the eating of ..., the giving) Incorrect: I enjoy giving gifts and the giving of food during the holidays.
Here, although "giving gifts " and "the giving of food" are both nouns, the first is a concrete noun/simple gerund, while the latter is an action noun/complex gerund. Just reading the sentence, you can tell why this would not be parallel.
Correct: I enjoy the giving of gifts and the giving of food during the holidays.
Correct: I enjoy giving gifts and giving food during the holidays.
Correct: I enjoy giving gifts and food during the holidays.
Note: There is a subtle difference in meaning between the first two correct sentences. The first one implies that he personally enjoys giving things during the holidays. The second implies that he enjoys the fact that gifts and food are given.
Also, between the second and third, the third is better because it's more concise.
Ultimately, parallel reasoning is not simply a grammatical structure but a logical structure, and how the parallel reasoning in a sentence works is inextricably connected to the logic of the meaning.
Sentence Correction questions:
Let’s discuss a few examples to understand the concept better.
1. Federal legislation establishing a fund for the cleanup of sites damaged by toxic chemicals permits compensating state governments for damage to their natural resources but does not allow claims for injury to people.
  1. compensating state governments for damage to
  2. compensating state governments for the damaging of (unparallel)
  3. giving state governments compensation for damaging (wordy and unparallel)
  4. giving compensation to state governments for the damage of (reasons are same as C)
  5. the giving of compensation to state governments for damaging (reasons are same as C)
2: Many of today’s mathematicians use computers to test cases that are either too time-consuming or involve too many variables to test manually, allowing the exploration of theoretical issues that were impossible to test a generation ago
  1. are either too time-consuming or involve too many variables to test manually, allowing the exploration of (unparallel)
  2. either take too much time or involve too many variables to be tested manually; allowing the mathematicians to explore (wrong use of semi colon)
  3. would either take too much time or involve too many variables to test manually, allowing them to explore
  4. would either be too time-consuming or would involve too many variables to test manually; this capability allows the mathematicians to explore (wrong use of semi colon + unparallel)
  5. take too much time or variables to test manually; this capability allows the mathematicians to explore (wrong use of the semi colon )
SDA