Critical Reasoning: Paragraph Completion Questions

DIRECTIONS for the question 1 to 9: In the given paragraph, the last line has been deleted. Choose the option that logically follows the paragraph.
  1. On the canvas of the Indian economy, automotive industry occupies a prominent place. Due to its deep forward and backward linkages with several key segments of the economy, automotive industry has a strong multiplier effect and is capable of being the driver of economic growth.
    1. A sound transportation system can play a pivotal role in India's rapid economic and industrial development
    2. Economy is a subjective term and depends on multifarious factors that play an integral part in determining the country’s growth
    3. Automobile sector is the only sector that determines the economy of any nation
    4. Other sectors are not directly proportional to the industrial growth of a nation
  2. The Arab spring is widely believed to have been instigated by dissatisfaction with the rule of local governments, though some have speculated that wide gaps in income levels may have had a hand as well. Numerous factors have led to the protests, including issues such as dictatorship or absolute monarchy, human rights violations, political corruption (demonstrated by Wiki leaks diplomatic cables), economic decline, unemployment, extreme poverty, and a number of demographic structural factors, such as a large percentage of educated but dissatisfied youth within the population.
    1. Some historians propagate the reasons that led to misgovernment and resulted in anarchy
    2. Also, some, philosopher attribute the 2009-2010 Iranian election protests as one of the reasons behind the Arab Spring
    3. It is due to wide gap between the have’s and have not and is a perfect example of Marxism
    4. Thus, student unrest is the main reason for Arab spring
  3. The right to education or SSA (Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan) scheme has been executed with the state government partnership in a way to cover the every portion of the country along with addressing the needs of 192 million children of 1.1 million habitations. This programme is designed in a way to open most of the new school in such a backwater area that do not hold any primary educational structures.
    1. The programme highlights the facilities by offering loans and maintenance grants
    2. This programme is also meant to facilitate the existing schools by giving hands to them for enhancing additional class rooms, drinking water, toilets, improvement grants and maintenance grant as well
    3. This programme is meant for extending air –conditioned classroom along with well qualified teachers
    4. This programme is meant to offer grants and to provide books for students till post graduate level
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  1. Demand explains the consumer side of purchasing decisions, supply relates to the producer's desire to make a profit. A supply schedule shows the amount of product that suppliers are willing and able to produce and make available to the market, at specific price points, during a certain time period. In short, it shows us the quantities that suppliers are willing to offer at various prices.
    1. This happens because suppliers tend to have different costs of production
    2. This happens when demand and supply are in an incoherent pattern and are responsible for cost push inflation
    3. This happens when profit reaped from the supplier have no direct dealing with the market trend
    4. This trend explains the supply and demand relationship explicitly
  2. Every sector of the manufacturing industry is unique by its own requirements and challenges, and hence right in believing that they are different. But manufacturing fundamentals of converting raw material to finished goods remain the same. Apparel manufacturing has higher amount of dependency with limited exposure to automation and that is its basic nature._____________
    1. The impact on the manufacturing is directly dependent on the man power
    2. The impact on machine dependence is the area of concern
    3. The impact on human variance is thereby felt the highest in this sector
    4. Apparel manufacturing is the most lucrative business any one can opt for
  3. With the development of nuclear war fare by USA during the Second World War, the major world powers of that era especially the animus nations expedited to possess it. USA arch rival USSR in 1950s and both USA's and USSR's rival China in 1960s could do so. After loosing the war of 1964 with China, India also started with its own nuclear development program that culminated with the nuclear blasts of 1974. This was followed by Pakistan which too felt the need to have its own nuclear arsenal to protect itself from nuclear equipped India.
    1. Thus, later Pakistan’s arch rival Iran too started its indigenous research for acquiring nuclear technology
    2. Thus, Pakistan was helped by China to acquire its nuclear arsenal
    3. Thus, nuclear proliferation has been the result of this tendency to save oneself from a more powerful enemy
    4. Thus, looking at the spread of nuclear weapons United Nations came up with measures such as NPT and CTBT
  4. Feroz Shah Tughlaq was born out of the nuptial relation of a Turkic Muslim ruler and an Indian Hindu woman. Facing a lot of resistance from Islamic quarters, a moderate person like him was forced to bring atrocities on his Hindu subjects to keep the fanatics happy.
    1. He imposed jaziya- an infidel tax on non Muslims
    2. He, however, was not able to satisfy different factions, thus his term was short lived
    3. Many temples were razed and masses converted to Islam
    4. Yet, he was able to portray his softer side by translating Sanskrit literature into Persian
  5. After the unprecedented move to allow the two arrested Italian Marines to temporarily go home, in the middle of an ongoing case against them for murdering Indian fishermen, for firstly Christmas celebrations and then some personal work by a benevolent Indian government, the refusal to send them back to India after their second visit to attend case hearings lead to an uproar in the Indian parliament by the opposition, censuring Italy’s betrayal, accusing the Indian government for this.
    1. Later, Indian public rebuked not only its government to have taken such a decision of sending them home in the first place but also Italy to have betrayed India.
    2. Later, Indian Prime Minister send a strong worded message to Italy to get its act right
    3. Italy thought an economically weaker country like India could be easily subjugated
    4. Later, not only the Indian government, but also the public reacted strongly and sent stern message to Italy
  6. Gandhi’s logic was that violence can bring us independence, but it cannot make us a strong nation. Without saying his inclination for things that were non violent and his aversion for violence has been well documented. He is criticized for having allowed the revolutionaries to go to the gallows. He thrice called off successful national movements that went awry towards violence.
    1. Gandhi’s non violence ultimately brought independence to India
    2. Through non violence Gandhi was able to put a united front against the British on people related issues
    3. To this day he is criticized for having called off a successful movements like Non-cooperation which could have brought Indians independence as early as 1920s
    4. Years later,India emerged as one of the very few newly independent nations of that era to not have faced a civil war or major internal conflict in its subsequent years of freedom
  7. Agricultural exports, such as vegetables and fruits, fish and shellfish, grain and meat products, are increasingly being exported by China to Hong Kong. Yields are high because of intensive cultivation, for example, China's cropland area is only 75% of the U.S. total, but China still produces about 30% more crops and livestock than the United States.
    1. China communist economy has an adverse impact on its economy
    2. China economy can be attributed to its exports
    3. China hopes to further increase agricultural production through improved plant stocks, fertilizers, and technology
    4. China’s agricultural products are inferior in quality to that of America’s
DIRECTIONS for question 11 to 15: The question is a logical sequence of statements with a missing link, the location of which is shown parenthetically. From the four choices available you are required to choose the one which best fits the sequence logically.
  1. People arguing for a position have been known to cast the opposite in an unnecessarily feeble light. (______). People who indulge in this fallacy may be fearful or ignorant of a strong counter argument. Detecting this fallacy often depends on having already heard a better refutation, or having information with which to construct one.
    1. Casting the opposite as weaker than it really is, is a very effective strategy.
    2. This portrayal of a refutation as weaker than it really is, is a sure way of proving your point.
    3. Casting the opposite as weaker than it really is, is not a very effective strategy.
    4. This portrayal of refutation as weaker than it really is, is unwarranted.
  2. The question of what rights animals should enjoy is a vexatious one, Hundreds of millions of animals are put to death for human use each year. Contrariwise, it can be argued that slowing down scientific research would retard discovery of antidotes to diseases such as cancer which kill humans and animals alike. (_________). What if super intelligent beings from Alpha Centauri landed on earth and decided to use us for their experiments, arguing that they could save far more of their and our lives by so doing?
    1. It will benefit both in the long run.
    2. Is the argument truly fair to animals?
    3. But the progress of human civilization cannot be made contingent on some hypothetical rights of animals.
    4. There is no question of equating human rights with those of animals.
  3. When we call others dogmatic, what we really object to is (___).
    1. their giving the dog a bad name
    2. their holding dogmas that are different from our own
    3. the extremism that goes along with it
    4. the subversion of whatever they actually believe in concomitantly
  4. I am an entertainer (___), I have to keep smiling because in my heart laughter and sorrow have an affinity.
    1. Even if I have tears in my eyes
    2. Even though I am depressed inside
    3. While entertaining people
    4. In the entertainment business
  5. Political power is just as permanent as today's newspaper. Ten years down the line, (___) the most powerful man in any state today.
    1. who cares
    2. nobody will remember what was written in today's newspaper or
    3. few will know, or care about
    4. when a lot of water will have passed under the bridge, who will care
CR-Para Completion Test
1. A The question highlights the importance of the automobile sector as one of the important sector that occupies an important position in the Indian economy. Option 1 is appropriate as the question explicitly mentions that the automotive sector has a strong multiplier effect and can drive the economic growth. Option 2 refers to economy as a subjective term but does not refer to the contribution of an automotive sector. Option 3, the word “only” makes the option too specific and is irrelevant tin the given context. Option 4 is out of context.
2. B The question speculates the reasons behind Arab Spring .It also highlights what Arab spring led to. Option 2 is the most appropriate as the next line will be in congruity with the question and also will be one of the main reason for the reasons behind Arab Spring. Option 1 is the repetition of the idea conveyed in the question. Option C is also inappropriate as there is no mention of stratification in the society that has resulted in Arab Spring, so this option is inappropriate. Also, option D is also inappropriate as there is no mention of students unrest being the main factor.
3. B The question highlights the designs of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan scheme and its purpose .Option I is inappropriate as offering of loans and maintenance of grants is not the purpose of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. Option 2 is the most appropriate as it is an extension of the programme’s scheme. Option 3 is also irrelevant as Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan purpose is to provide basic amenities at government schools. Option 4 is wrong because SSA is not meant for the post graduate levels.
4. A The question highlights the relevant information about Supply chain management.  A supply schedule has been explicitly mentioned in the question. As the question implies that the suppliers are willing to offer their products at various prices, so the most appropriate justification in this context would be A, because the suppliers usually have different costs of production. Option B is inappropriate as there is no mention of demand and supply and their incoherent patterns. Similarly ,in option C Profits reaped  have no direct dealing with the market trend is irrelevant as per the question. Option D is a restatement of the last line therefore rejected.
5. A The question deals with Apparel manufacturing Industry and its dependency with limited exposure on machinery. This implies that in an Apparel Manufacturing industry, there is a lot of dependency on manual labour or man power. this is stated in option A. Option B is inappropriate as the question refers to the nature of the apparel industry and not about its dependency on any area of concern.Option C is also irrelevant as the impact of human variance is not the extension of the question. Option D is a subjective opnion as it is not mentioned anywhere in the passage that this business is lucrative or not. Therefore option D is rejected.
6. C We need an answer that includes all the countries mentioned in the paragraph above and that contains the general idea of the entire text.  Option (A) is no doubt a continuation of this sequence but it does not contain the central idea. Options (B) is not a direct continuation so it cannot be the answer. Option (D) is no doubt very close but this is talking about a situation that doesn’t seem to be an immediate sequel of the events above.Therefore the best conclusion is option C.
7. D The answer should contain the primary idea that he was forced to inflict atrocities despite being a moderate. Options A, B and C are wrong on this basis. His moderate side is getting revealed in (D).
8. D The best answer should reflect the anger of India, which not only means government but also its people.  (C) is Italy’s view point about India that though correct cannot be the one that completes the paragraph suitably. Option (A) talks only about public’s anger and (B) talks about only governments’. So the best answer is (D) as it reflects the anger of public and the government alike on this issue.
9. D The first line of the passage brings to us Gandhi’s reason of belief in non violence to make a nation strong and subsequent lines discuss the ways he implemented his belief.  Options (A) and (B) talks about non violence getting India independence but not about making it a strong nation. Option (C) is merely a restatetment. Option (D) clearly talks about India’s unity in the aftermath of its independence that serves as a proof of how non- violent ideals of Gandhi helped the nation.
10. C The question refers to the Agricultural Exports of China and discusses China’s yield as compared to that of U.S. Option C will be the most appropriate .option A is irrelevant as the communist economy may or may not have an impact on the economy is not in coherence as per the context. Option B takes a different tangent talking about importance of exports to Chinese economy and option D is out of scope.
11. C Option C suggests that the strategy adopted by some people is not very effective, and the idea is continued with in the passage when the author refers to it as 'this fallacy'.
12. B What follows the blank shows that the author is against the argument projected in the beginning of the passage.
B is the only choice which would support this.
13. B Dogmatic means inclined to lay down principles as undeniably true. A dogmatic person is the one who is thought to be extremist in his viewpoitns. In the sentence above 'When we call others dogmatic, what we really object to is ___', only option B fits in as it becomes the only valid reason for the objection to dogmatic views.
14. A Since the sentence talks about the affinity between laughter and sorrow, option A becomes a perfect choice as it too talks about the same link.
15. C The options that rightly sum up the relationship between the newspaper and political power are options B and C. Since option C conveys the same meaning in lesser words, its better
SDA