Critical Reasoning: Practice Questions

DIRECTIONS for the question: Answer the question based on the information given.
Question No. : 1
Many business offices are located in buildings having 2-8 floors. If a building has more than 3 floors, it has a lift. If the above statements are true, which of the following must be true?
  1. 2nd floors do not have lifts    
  2. 7th floors have lifts    
  3. Only floors above the 3rd floors have lifts
  4. All floors may be reached by lifts
Answer: Option B
Explanation:- The question states that if the building has more than three floors than it has lift. Then the buildings, which have say five floors they have a second floor also, thus first option is wrong. The 2nd is the right answer. The third option is wrong, using same logic as in case of the first option. The 4th cannot be definitely true, because had it been the case, then even the building with two floors would have had lifts.
DIRECTIONS for the question: Answer the question based on the information given.
Question No. : 2
"Some men are definitely intelligent, others are definitely not intelligent, but of intermediate men, we should say, 'intelligent'? Yes, I think, so or no, I shouldn't be inclined to call him intelligent."
Which of the following reflects the intention of the writer well?
  1. To call men intelligent who are not strikingly so must be to use the concept with undue imprecision
  2. Every empirical concept has a degree of vagueness    
  3. Calling someone intelligent or not depends upon one's whim
  4. There is no need to be as indecisive as the writer of the above
Answer: Option A
Explanation:- The Writer clearly states in the last part of his statement, that he should or should not be inclined to call him intelligent. The only option, which reflects that intention, is the first option and thus is the answer.
Option B is wrong because we cannot generalise all empirical concepts to be vague on basis of this and it is irrelevant also. Option C and D are also vague.
DIRECTIONS for the question: The question is based on a  situation. Read the situation and answer the question that follows
Question No. : 3
Between 1960 and 1970, ivory poachers in the African nation of Zinbaku killed over 6,500 elephants. During that period, the total elephant population in Zinbaku fell from about 35,000 to just under 30,000. In 1970, new anti-poaching measures were implemented in Zinbaku, and between 1970 and 1980 over 800 poachers were arrested and expelled from the country. Nevertheless, by 1980, the elephant population in Zinbaku had fallen to about 21,000.
Which of the following, if true, would best help to explain the apparent paradox presented above?
  1. The poachers arrested in Zinbaku between 1970 and 1980 were rarely sentenced to long prison terms
  2. Because of highly publicized campaigns against the slaughter of elephants, demand for ivory fell between 1970 and 1980
  3. The elephant   population in neighbouring Mombasa rose slightly between 1970 and 1980
  4. In Zinbaku, between 1970 and 1980, thousands of acres of forest, the elephant's natural habitat, were cleared for farming
Answer: Option D
Explanation:- The paradox can be explained if an option offers an alternate reason for the decrease of population. Option D does that.
DIRECTIONS for the question: Refer the following and answer the question that follows:
If highways were restricted to cars and only those trucks with capacity of less than 8 tons, most of the truck traffic would be forced to run outside highways. Such a reduction in the amount of truck traffic would reduce the risk of collisions on highways.
Question No. : 4
The conclusion drawn in the Ist sentence depends on which of the following assumptions?
  1. The roads outside highway would be as convenient as highway for most drivers of trucks..
  2. Most of the roads outside highways are not ready to handle truck traffic.
  3. Most trucks that are currently running in highway have a capacity of more than 8 tons.
  4. Cars are at greater risk of being involved in collisions than are trucks.
Answer: Option C
Explanation:- The first sentence concludes that prohibiting trucks with capacity of more than 8 tons from highway would force most trucks away from highways.
The conclusion cannot be true unless it is true that, as 3 says, most trucks that use highways have capacity of more than 8 tons. Therefore, the first sentence's conclusion assumes this choice, which is thus the best answer.
DIRECTIONS for the question: Answer the question based on the information given.
Question No. : 5
A highly cohesive work group is a prerequisite for high team performance. Sociologists point out that the association between success and group cohesion owes to the support individual team members give to one another and their acceptance of the group's activities and goals.
Each of the following, if true, either supports or cannot weaken the sociologists' assumption about the relationship between success and cohesion EXCEPT
  1. A group of Japanese researchers found that the successful work teams were led by dominant leaders
  2. University researchers found that there was a significant correlation between team productivity and the extent to which team members understood and complied with the group's objectives
  3. American researchers found that successful team members tended to rate their fellow members more favourably
  4. Industrial Psychologists of UK found that work groups who tended to participate in after-hours social activities were more productive
Answer: Option A
Explanation:- The first option states that a group of Japanese researchers found that successful work teams were led by dominant leaders. Thus it weakens the main question, which points out that that work cohesiveness is a prerequisite for high team performance.
DIRECTIONS for the question: Answer the question based on the information given.
Question No. : 6
There are numerous reasons why individuals want to run their own businesses. Some foresee more personal satisfaction if they succeed in launching their own business, while others are mainly interested in the prospect of larger financial rewards. Since 1980s and early 1990s, tax regulation and liberal policies have encouraged increasing number of venture capitalists and entrepreneurs to start new enterprises. Since 1990, one and a half million new ventures have been started. Not all have succeeded.
The above statement makes which of the following assumptions?
  1. Success in starting a new business largely depends on sound financial planning
  2. Venture capitalists are motivated by non-monetary gains    
  3. Social incentives motivate investors just as much as financial rewards
  4. None of these
Answer: Option D
Explanation:- None of the given option seems to be a valid assumption; hence the 4th option that is none of these is the answer. Option A is a general statement
Option B is a wrong assumption as it is mentioned in the passage that they are interested in financial rewards. Option C is irrelevant.
DIRECTIONS for the question: Refer the following and answer the question that follows:
If highways were restricted to cars and only those trucks with capacity of less than 8 tons, most of the truck traffic would be forced to run outside highways. Such a reduction in the amount of truck traffic would reduce the risk of collisions on highways.
Question No. : 7
Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion drawn in the second sentence?
  1. Highways are experiencing overcrowded traffic mainly because of sharp increases in car traffic
  2. Many drivers of trucks would rather buy trucks with a capacity of less than 8 tons than be excluded from highways.
  3. The number of collisions that occur near highways has reduced in recent years
  4. Trucks that have a capacity of more than 8 tons cause a disproportionately large number of collisions on highways
Answer: Option D
Explanation:- The second sentence concludes that the reduction described in the first sentence would reduce the risk of collisions in highways. According to 4, such a reduction would remove precisely the kind of truck that causes a disproportionate number of collisions. Thus 4 is the best answer
DIRECTIONS for the question: Choose the best/correct answer from the answer choices given.
Question No. : 8
Offshore oil-drilling operations involve an unavoidable risk of an oil spill, but importing oil on tankers presently involves an even greater such risk per barrel of oil. So, if we are to lessen the risk of an oil spill without reducing our oil usage, we must invest more in offshore operations and import less oil on tankers.
Which of the following, if true, seriously weakens the argument above?
  1. Importing oil on tankers is currently less expensive than drilling for it offshore.
  2. Tankers can easily be redesigned so that their use entails less risk of an oil spill.
  3. The impact of offshore operations on the environment can be reduced by careful management.
  4. Oil spills caused by tankers have generally been more serious than those caused by offshore operations.
Answer: Option B
Explanation:- Option 2. We have to go against investment in offshore drilling and support importing oil on tankers. In that case, the argument is weakened because the lowered risk of oil spills resulting from improved oil tanker design could actually make tankers less problematic than offshore operations.
This is present in choice 2.
DIRECTIONS for the question: Choose the best/correct answer from the answer choices.
Question No. : 9
In terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), rural households have more purchasing power than do urban and suburban households at the same income level, since some of the income urban and suburban households utilize for food and shelter can be utilized by rural households for other needs. Which of the following inferences is best supported by the statement made above?
SDA
  1. All three types of households, urban, suburban, and rural, spend more of their income on housing than all other purchases combined.
  2. Rural households have lower housing and food costs than do either urban or suburban households.
  3. The median income of suburban and urban households is generally more than that of rural households.
  4. The average rural households include more people than does the average urban or suburban holds.
Answer: Option B
Explanation:- Option 2. If less money is spent on food and other basic needs, then rest of the income is spared for other expenses. This is shown in 2.
NMAT_Rigistration_India
DIRECTION for the question: The question is based on a passage or a set of conditions. Select the best answer from the answer choices numbered (1), (2), (3) and (4) given.
Question No. : 10
In contrast to the earlier predictions, demand for sugarcane has not risen in recent years, yet, even though production amounts and price have also been stable during the last 3 years. Last year, sugarcane growers increased their profits by more than 10 percent over the previous year’s level.
Any of the following statements, if true, about last year, helps explain the rise in profits EXCEPT:
  1. Many sugar factories that are large consumers of sugarcane increase their production of sugarcane-based ethanol, yet their overall consumption of sugarcane decreased.
  2. Rainfall in sugarcane-growing regions was higher than it had been during previous year, allowing the growers to save money on expensive artificial irrigation.
  3. Sugarcane growers have saved money on wages by switching from paying labourers a daily wage to paying them by the amount harvested.
  4. Many small sugarcane growers joined together to form an association of sugarcane producers and began to buy supplies at low group rates.
Answer: Option A
Explanation:- Option 1. Option 2, 3 and 4 advocate means by which costs can be reduced. This would have a direct effect on profits, increasing them. Hence 1.