Reading Comprehension - Inference Questions

DIRECTIONS for the question 1- 4 : Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
On August 3, 1492 , Christopher Columbus set sail from Palos , Spain , with less than a hundred crew members to discover a new route to Asia. After spending a difficult time at sea, the party sighted land early on the morning ofOctober 12, 1492. They set foot on an island in the Bahamas which they named Al Salvador. Columbus presumed that the indigenous people were Native Indians as he was under the mistaken belief that he had set foot on Indian soil. Probably some 10 million American Indians were natives to the land before the large-scale inhabitation by Europeans and subsequent annihilation of Native Americans started.
However, it took more than a hundred years after Columbus discovered America for the Europeans to finally take the momentous decision to make the New World their home.
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The Native Americans actually welcomed the pale-skinned visitors primarily out of curiosity than anything else. They were fascinated by the steel knives and swords, fire spewing cannons, brass and copper utensils, etc. that these visitors brought with them. Eventually, cultural differences erupted. The natives could not stomach the arrogance of the newcomers and the scant respect they paid to nature. The European settlers viewed every resource — plants, animals, and people as something to be commercially exploited.
The native Indians were vastly outnumbered in the wars that ensued. The resistance they put up never proved enough to stop the European settlers. The nomadic lifestyle of the Indians, the relatively unsophisticated weapons at their disposal, the unwillingness of some of their own people to defend themselves, and the diseases of the white men — all contributed to the virtual elimination of their race. Some of the diseases brought by Europeans from their overcrowded cities that decimated the natives were: small pox, plague, measles, cholera, typhoid, and malaria. These deadly diseases, to which most natives had developed no resistance, devastated many tribes between 1775 and 1850.
America was named after an Italian navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, who explored the Northern parts of South America in 1499 and 1500 and later announced to the world about the discovery of a new continent.
  1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
    1. Disprove the notion that America was named after Columbus
    2. Provide a snapshot of the discovery of America and the early years of settlements.
    3. Explain how the Europeans eliminated the native Americans in their own land
    4. Discuss how the process of colonization of America started.    
    5. To tell about the Americans Indians.

    Answer : Option B.
    The primary purpose of the passage is to give a brief account of the discovery of America and the early years of settlement
  2. From the passage we can infer that in comparison to the Europeans, Native Americans were
    1. Careless about their environment    
    2. A very unhealthy lot    
    3. More respectful of nature    
    4. Ignorant about sanitation
    5. Afraid of outsiders

    Answer : Option C.
    From the third paragraph, we can make out that they were more respectful of nature.
  3. What can be inferred from the third paragraph?
    1. The native Americans did not have any weapons with which to defend themselves.
    2. The native Americans probably attached a lot of importance to and respected nature.
    3. The native Americans did not know how to use natural resources.
    4. The early settlers became arrogant as they could commercially exploit resources.
    5. The native Americans did not know the art of making utensils.

    Answer : Option B.
  4. Based on the information in the passage which of the following cannot be inferred?
    1. Alien diseases wiped out a large proportion of certain Native American tribes
    2. The early settlers totally eliminated the Native Americans
    3. To the early settlers, even people were resources to be exploited commercially
    1. Only I
    2. Only II
    3. I & II
    4. Only III
    5. None of these

    Answer : Option B.
    In the fourth paragraph it is stated, "The nomadic lifestyle of the Indians, the relative………..all contributed to the virtual elimination of their race." The word 'virtual' means ‘almost but not completely.' Hence, the Native Americans were not totally eliminated
DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
It is believed that Shakespeare wrote The Merchant of Venice between 1596 and 1598. The classification of this play as a ‘comedy’ could stupefy many modern day youngsters who are used to a somewhat different meaning. But during Shakespeare’s times, a comedy was as poignant and melodramatic as a tragedy with separation, struggle, and heightened tensions being the central theme. However, the ending was always a happy one with at least the hero and heroine getting married, if not their friends too. Many people feel more comfortable with the term ‘problem plays’ or ‘tragicomedies’ than ‘comedies’ being used for such plays.
This play tends to stir up a hornet’s nest and ruffle feathers whenever it is discussed or staged. As The Merchant of Venice can be viewed from different perspectives, it evokes several reactions including extreme sympathy for the villain, the Jewish moneylender Shylock, and anger against the hero, his friend Bassanio, and Bassanio’s wife, Portia. Shakespeare has been accused of anti-Semitism because of the contemptuous utterances of his hero who even calls the villain a ‘cur’, a derogatory word that means ‘an aggressive mongrel dog.’
Critics of this play overlook the possibility that Shakespeare was just commenting upon the social situation prevailing during his time. A dispassionate analysis — not possible by a casual reading of such classics — will reveal the superb portrayal of the deep anguish experienced by the marginalized or ostracized sections of society. Sample these lines of Shylock that are bitingly rational as well as emotional.
“Hath not a Jew eyes? Hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions; fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same means……If you prick us, do we not bleed? If you tickle us, do we not laugh? If you poison us, do we not die? And if you wrong us shall we not revenge? .....The villainy you teach me, I will execute, and it shall go hard, but I will better the instruction.”
These powerful words put by Shakespeare into the mouth of a man portrayed as a villain would not be so potent if this master dramatist had no deep-felt empathy for a character, who probably was more wronged than he wronged others. These sentences probably also explain the discomfort of we modernists when such dramas are called
  1. From the passage, we can infer that the author is
    1. Of the opinion that Shakespeare had no deep-felt empathy for any of his characters
    2. Uncomfortable with the notion of heroes possessing negative traits
    3. Uncomfortable with the term ‘comedy’ being used for plays like The Merchant of Venice
    4. Supporting the critics who feel that the hero of The Merchant of Venice is not a likeable character.
    5. Opposing Shakespeare’s idea of comedies.

    Answer : Option B.
    The last sentence of the passage provides the support for this answer.
DIRECTION for the question: Answer the question based on the information given in the passage.
The need for knowledge of the constitution and functions, in the concrete, of human nature is great just because the teacher's attitude to subject matter is so different from that of the pupil. The teacher presents in actuality what the pupil represents only in posse. That is, the teacher already knows the things which the student is only learning. Hence the problem of the two is radically unlike. When engaged in the direct act of teaching, the instructor needs to have subject matter at his fingers' ends; his attention should be upon the attitude and response of the pupil. To understand the latter in its interplay with subject matter is his task, while the pupil's mind, naturally, should be not on itself but on the topic in hand. Or to state the same point in a somewhat different manner: the teacher should be occupied not with subject matter in itself but in its interaction with the pupils' present needs and capacities. Hence simple scholarship is not enough.
  1. It can be inferred from the paragraph that:
    1. simple scholarship is lop-sided in its focus
    2. simple scholarship might overlook the subject matter and focus purely on the student
    3. simple scholarship, with a narrow focus, might not place enough emphasis on the student’s needs
    4. simple scholarship will always be lopsided in nature because of its ambiguous stand on problems

    Answer : Option C.
    In the given question, the answer can be inferred from the lines: Or to state the same point in a somewhat different manner: the teacher should be occupied not with subject matter in itself but in its interaction with the pupils' present needs and capacities.
    Hence simple scholarship is not enough.
    This leads us to option 3. Option 2 reverses the actually given fact, option 1 is insufficient and option 4 is not related to the given paragraph.
DIRECTION for the question: Answer the question based on the information given in the passage.
A being whose activities are associated with others has a social environment. What he does and what he can do depend upon the expectations, demands, approvals, and condemnations of others. A being connected with other beings cannot perform his own activities without taking the activities of others into account. For they are the indispensable conditions of the realization of his tendencies. When he moves he stirs them and reciprocally. We might as well try to imagine a business man doing business, buying and selling, all by himself, as to conceive it possible to define the activities of an individual in terms of his isolated actions. The manufacturer moreover is as truly socially guided in his activities when he is laying plans in the privacy of his own counting house as when he is buying his raw material or selling his finished goods. Thinking and feeling that have to do with action in association with others is as much a social mode of behavior as is the most overt cooperative or hostile act.
  1. It can be inferred from the paragraph that:
    1. In our social world, one’s thinking, feelings and actions cannot stand in isolation to actions of others
    2. In our social world, thinking, feelings and actions of an individual are driven by motivations and thoughts of others
    3. In our social world, thinking, feelings and actions of a person cannot stand in isolation to those of others
    4. In our social world, thinking, feelings and actions of a single person are juxtaposed retrospectively to those of others

    Answer : Option C.
    The paragraph has one simple outcome: in a social environment, an individual cannot act, think or feel without considering others. This simple fact is illustrated by option 3. Option 4 commits the mistake of using the word retrospectively (In a manner contemplative of past events). Option 1 commits the mistake of only quoting the actions of others, and option 2 brings in ‘motivations’, something which is not mentioned in the paragraph.
DIRECTION for the question: Answer the question based on the information given in the passage.
An increase in the level of serotonin levels in the human body is known to significantly enhance the mood of the person and in some cases, help people overcome depression. Serotonin taken orally does not pass into the pathways of the central nervous system, because it does not cross the blood–brain barrier. However, tryptophan and its metabolite 5-hydroxytryptophan (5- HTP), from which serotonin is synthesized, does cross the blood–brain barrier. These agents are available as dietary supplements, and may be effective serotonergic agents.
  1. Which of the following can be correctly inferred from the statements above?
    1. Individuals who do not consume enough tryptophan can develop depressive tendencies
    2. Individuals who consume tryptophan can metabolize enough serotonin and do not run the risk of depression
    3. Consumption of serotonin laced foods can help cure depression in some cases
    4. Tryptophan is an effective agent that can help cure depression in some cases

    Answer : Option D.
    In the given case, option 4 is the only valid inference. We know tryptophan helps produce serotonin, which in turn helps cure depression in some cases. This connection is highlighted by option 4.
    Option 1 is something we cannot conclude. We are not sure whether not consuming tryptophan causes depression. Option 2 is again ruled out as the paragraph does not state that producing enough serotonin precludes depression.
    Option 3 is incorrect as serotonin is not directly metabolized in the body and this means that having foods containing serotonin cannot be synthesized by the body directly.
DIRECTION for the question: The question has a text portion followed by four alternative summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the text. An increase in the median income of the middle class does not cause average levels of education for the middle class to go up. If they did, then countries with the highest median income of the middle class would also have the highest levels of education for this class. In fact, when the median income of the middle class is made suitably comparable for different countries (accounting for inflation, currency fluctuations and purchasing power parity), there is no such co-relation.
  1. Which of the following can be correctly inferred from the statements above?
    1. Countries with the highest median income of the middle class do not have the highest levels of education for the middle class
    2. It is difficult to reliably compare the education and income levels of one country with another
    3. A reduction in the median income of the middle class of the country will not necessarily lower the average level of education for the said class
    4. Countries with low levels of education for the middle class have comparatively higher levels of median income for the middle class

    Answer : Option C.
    In this case, we are told that there is no reliable relationship between the median income and average level of education for the middle class and the increase/decrease in income levels does not have an impact on education levels. This sentiment is highlighted by option 3.
    Options 1 and 4 can be ruled out as no direct co-relation can be found between the median income and average level of education for the middle class. These two options in fact give a particular extreme co-relation.
    Option 2 is irrelevant in the given case (goes against the given facts, figures for comparison have been derived in fact).
DIRECTIONS for the question : Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
The indiscriminate use of advanced technology from the North in developing nations was questioned at a seminar in Madrid that drew engineers and representatives of around 50 non- governmental organisations from a number of countries to the capital of Spain this week. Technology does not play a neutral role when it comes to development processes.
Technology, no matter where it is applied, can only be understood and valued in relation to the social group that creates or uses it, because ''every model of society and development conceives of and uses a different kind of technology,'' said Sánchez Jacob. He recalled that in the mid-20th century, the idea was that poor countries could attain the development achieved by the North by drawing investment and industrialisation. However, ''it did not take long for that theory to be refuted, and many Third World countries have not followed the same evolutionary pattern as those of the North, but have come to a standstill instead,'' he added. Sánchez Jacob noted that ''Globalization and growth are often achieved at the cost of the environment, and without raising the standard of living of the majority of the population.'' Today, the concept of appropriate technology - that which is best suited to the economic, social and cultural characteristics of developing countries - is growing in strength, he said. He underlined, however, that it was not just a question of designing and providing the right technologies to excluded communities, but of calling attention to those technologies which hurt human development, by modifying the environmental equilibrium, for instance. Besides the impact of technology, the seminar discussed the need for a ''social focus'' to make it possible to integrate ''backwards'' sectors into the market economy.
Daniel Rodríguez, the manager of the Agro-processing Programme in Peru, said the development of small and medium farms would not only depend on technology, but largely on farmers' knowledge of the demand and requirements of the market.
However, ''one of the biggest challenges of appropriate technology is, undoubtedly, coming up with sustainable mechanisms of technical assistance, training, information and financing,'' he added. Valentín Villarroel, with Engineers without Borders, noted that telecommunications infrastructure in Latin America was characterised by low quality and costs that were often
unaffordable for household budgets. Equipment is old and outdated, especially in the field of informatics, and ''opting for new technology implies high costs and the risk of becoming obsolete in a very short time,'' he explained. Villarroel stressed the need to expand infrastructure to facilitate access to telecommunication networks, give priority to community action over individual needs, adapt technology to local necessities, and prevent telecommunications and the Internet from being concentrated in a few hands
  1. Which among the following cannot be inferred about Globalization?
    1. Globalization brings different cultures closer.
    2. Globalization helps in promoting trade among countries
    3. Globalization leads to sharing of resources
    4. Globalization leads to Equitable growth

    Answer : Option D.
    Nothing is mentioned clearly about the first three options. Refer to the eighth line of second paragraph ''Globalization and growth are often achieved at the cost of the environment, and without raising the standard of living of the majority of the population.” this means that it cannot provide equitable growth. Hence option 4 cannot be inferred.
DIRECTIONS for the question : Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
During our college days there was a common teaser we used to discuss “what is there that comes in our lives and never goes back, and what is that which goes and never comes back?” The answer was known to almost everybody but still someone will raise his or her hand and answer the riddle as if the answer was known to him/her only, and the answer was: "It’s old age that comes and never goes back and it’s the innocent childhood that goes and never comes back”. But this riddle got lost somewhere in the struggle of life.
The struggle for “bread and butter” is so cruel that the age and innocence of childhood have no meaning for it but still there are imprudent men who laugh at the time and say “we will never allow the child within us taken away by the kidnappers of time" and such people always enjoy the company of that child within.
I vividly remember the days when my father used to have a strange kind of joy on his face seeing thick black clouds, and as soon as rain started, he would run outside the house like a child (he was 58 at that time) and jump and sometime roll down on ground enjoying the freshly made rainwater pond, singing a song of his choice.
We used to get surprised at his child-like act and would ask him repeatedly to come back inside else he would catch cold or fever but he would always say, "Beta mere andar jo bachcha hai voh mujhe kehta hai mein abhi mara nahin hoon, chalo barish mein nahate hain, and I cannot stop my feet to stay within the four walls."
Today my father is no more with us but whenever there is torrential rain and my own children enjoy the rain as papa used to do, I always feel his presence around, whispering into my ears, if you want to live a pleasant and long life, never let the child within you die.
Nature has given us so many gifts to enjoy and rain is one of them but most of us ignore the joys coming in our way, falling prey to the tiring day-to-day life. But I never forget to pay a tribute to my father and always become a child with my children whenever they enjoy rain. Only a hot cup of coffee brings me back to my adulthood after the rain and keeps my father alive, the child alive.
  1. What do you infer out of the passage?
    1. There is a child within all of us with whom one should not lose the contact in order to enjoy the life to the fullest.
    2. One should behave in a childish manner to overcome stress in life.
    3. Rain is the only natural bestowal that lets you enjoy the bliss and charm of life.
    4. The struggle for livelihood is becoming so cruel by the day that one tends to lose on the personal time.

    Answer : Option A.
    Option 1 seems to be correct as the author in the passage mainly deals with establishing the contact with the child within. Options 2nd and 3rd are digressing from the central conception. Option 4rth is explicitly mentioned in the passage itself.
DIRECTIONS for the question : Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
Health is wealth. In the life of a human being health occupies an important place. Preservation of health should be the primary duty of mankind. Health is man's normal condition, his birth right. It is the result of living in accordance with the natural laws, pertaining to the body, mind and environment. A healthy environment facilities good health but it is the unhealthy environment due to over population, excessive industrialization, air and water pollution etc. that is threatening the life with many dreadful diseases. In the contemporary India many people have been gripped by the clutch of disease like cancer, diabetes, hypertension, AIDS etc. although people of ancient India were said to be relatively healthy. At present people are suffering from various mental disorders also because they are racing blindly towards fame and having only one aim in life that is to achieve the big status in society. There is no field of human endeavor that has been so misunderstood as health. While health which connotes well being and the absence of illness has a low profile, it is illness representing the failure of health which virtually monopolizes attention because of the fear of pain, disability and death. This provides the medical practitioner power over the patients which can be misused. Till recently, patients had implicit faith in their doctor whom they loved and respected, not only for his knowledge but also in the total belief that practitioners of this noble profession, guided by ethics, always placed the patient’s interest above all other considerations. Our indigenous system of medicine like Ayurveda and yoga have been more concerned with the promotion of health. Healthy practices like cleanliness, proper diet, exercise and meditation are part of culture which sustains people even in the prevailing conditions of poverty in rural India and in unhygienic urban slums. These systems consider disease as an aberration resulting from disturbance of the equilibrium of health, which must be corrected by gentle restoration of this balance through proper diet, medicines and the establishment of mental peace. They also teach the graceful acceptance of old age with its infirmities resulting from degenerative process as well as of death which is inevitable. This is in marked contrast to the western concept of life as a struggle against disease, aging and death which must be fought and conquered with the knowledge and technology derived from their science: a science which, with its narrow dissecting and qualifying approach, has provided us the understanding of the microbial causes of communicable diseases and provided highly effective technology for their prevention, treatment and control.
  1. Which of the following can be inferred about the position of the author in writing the passage?
    A. Critical and objective assessment of the present situation.
    B. Passionate supporter of western system in present context.
    C. Supremacy of ancient Indian system in today’s world.
    1. Only A
    2. Only B
    3. Both A and C
    4. Both B and C

    Answer : Option A.
    The author is evaluating the present scenario . So, A is true.
    Statement B is nowhere given. And author is also not talking about the superiority of India over others. Therefore only option A is correct.
DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.
A wide range of water conflicts appear throughout history, though rarely are traditional wars waged over water alone. Instead, water has historically been a source of tension and a factor in conflicts that start for other reasons. However, water conflicts arise for several reasons, including territorial disputes, a fight for resources, and strategic advantage.
Water conflicts in India have penetrated every level. It has divided every segment of our society, political parties, states, regions and sub-regions within states, districts, castes and groups and individual farmers. Water conflicts within and between many developing countries are taking a serious turn. Fortunately, the “water wars”, forecast by so many, have not yet materialized. War has taken place, but over oil, not water. Water is radically altering and affecting political boundaries all over the world, between as well as within countries. In India, water conflicts are likely to worsen before they begin to be resolved. Until then they pose a significant threat to economic growth, security and health of the ecosystem and the victims are likely to be the poorest of the poor as well as the very sources of water-rivers, wetlands and aquifers.
Conflicts might have negative connotations, but they are logical developments in the absence of proper democratic, legal and administrative mechanisms to handle issues at the root of water conflicts. Part of the problem stems from the specific nature of water, namely that water is divisible and amenable to sharing; one unit of water by one is a unit denied to others; it has multiple uses and users and involves resultant trade-offs. Excludability is an innate problem and very often exclusion costs involved are very high: it involves the issue of graded scales and boundaries and need for evolving a corresponding understanding around them. Finally, the way water is planned, used and managed causes externalities, both positive and negative, and many of them are unidirectional and asymmetric.
There is a relatively greater visibility as well as a greater body of experience in evolving policies, frameworks, legal set-ups and administrative mechanisms dealing with immobile natural resources, however, contested the space may be.
Reformists as well as revolutionary movements are rooted in issues related to land. Several political and legal interventions addressing the issue of equity and societal justice have been attempted. Most countries have gone through land reforms of one type or another. Issues related to forests have also generated a body of comprehensive literature on forest resources and right. Though conflicts over them have not necessarily been effectively or adequately resolved, they have received much more serious attention, have been studied in their own right and practical as well as theoretical means of dealing with them have been sought. In contrast, water conflicts have not received the same kind of attention.
  1. Which of the following can be inferred about water conflicts?
    1. Water management techniques like dams, linking rivers etc have negative consequences
    2. There is no real solution to water conflicts    
    3. Despite receiving much attention water conflicts remain unresolved
    4. Water conflicts threaten the livelihood of those who depend on water sources

    Answer : Option A.
    We get this answer after reading the lines “Finally the way water………. Asymmetric.”Third option cannot be an inference as it is given in the last line of the passage. Option 4 is not mentioned in the passage.
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DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the following passage carefully and answer the question based on what is written/ implied therein.
In the early days of Internet marketing, online advertisers employed banner and pop-up ads to attract customers. These techniques reached large audiences, generated many sales leads, and came at a low cost. However, a small number of Internet users began to consider these advertising techniques intrusive and annoying. Yet because marketing strategies relying heavily on banners and pop-ups produced results, companies  invested growing amounts of money into purchasing these ad types in hopes of capturing market share in  the burgeoning online economy. As consumers became more sophisticated, frustration with these online advertising techniques grew. Independent programmers began to develop tools that blocked banner and pop-up ads. The popularity of these tools exploded when the search engine Google, at the time an increasingly popular website fighting to solidify its place on the Internet with giants Microsoft and Yahoo, offered free software enabling users to block pop-up ads. The backlash against banner ads grew as new web browsers provided users the ability to block image-based ads such as banner ads. Although banner and pop-up ads still exist, they are far less prominent than during the early days of the Internet.A major development in online marketing came with the introduction of pay-per-click ads. Unlike banner or pop-up ads, which originally required companies to pay every time a website visitor saw an ad, pay-per-click ads allowed companies to pay only when an interested potential customer clicked on an ad. More importantly, however, these ads circumvented the pop-up and banner blockers. As a result of these advantages and the incredible growth in the use of search engines, which provide excellent venues for pay-per-click advertising, companies began turning to pay-per-click marketing in droves. However, as with the banner and pop-up ads that preceded them, pay-per-click ads came with their drawbacks. When companies began pouring billions of dollars into this emerging medium, online advertising specialists started to notice the presence of what would later be called click fraud: representatives of a company with no interest in the product advertised by a competitor click on the competitor's ads simply to increase the marketing cost of the competitor. Click fraud grew so rapidly that marketers sought to diversify their online positions away from pay- per-click marketing through new mediums. Although pay-per-click advertising remains a common and effective advertising tool, marketers adapted yet again to the changing dynamics of the Internet by adopting new techniques such as pay-per-performance advertising, search engine optimization, and affiliate marketing. As the pace of the Internet's evolution increases, it seems all the more likely that advertising successfully on the Internet will require a strategy that shuns constancy and embraces change.
  1. Which statement you can infer from the paragraph
    1. In order to attract customers online advertisers employed banner and pop-up ads
    2. Marketing executives in television work with a relatively stable advertising medium.
    3. Once people get frustrated with the excessive online marketing they will develop the ways to get rid of their frustration.
    4. A major development in online marketing came with the introduction of pay-per-click ads.

    Answer : Option C.
    All others are directly taken from the paragraph.
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